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Albert Einstein

Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration.jpg
Albert Einstein in 1921

Born

14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire

Died

18 April 1955
Princeton, New Jersey, US

Residence

Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, United States

Citizenship

  • Subject of the Kingdom of Württemberg during the German Empire
  • Stateless
  • Citizen of Switzerland
  • Austrian subject of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Subject of the Kingdom of Prussia during the German Empire
  • German citizen of the Free State of Prussia
  • Citizen of the United States

Education

  • Swiss Federal Polytechnic
  • University of Zurich

Known for

  • General relativity
  • Special relativity
  • Photoelectric effect
  • E=mc 2
  • E=hf
  • Theory of Brownian motion
  • Einstein field equations
  • Bose–Einstein statistics
  • Bose–Einstein condensate
  • Gravitational wave
  • Cosmological constant
  • Unified field theory
  • EPR paradox
  • Ensemble interpretation
  • List of other concepts

Spouse

Mileva Marić
Elsa Löwenthal

Children

"Lieserl" EinsteinHans Albert EinsteinEduard "Tete" Einstein

Awards

  • Barnard Medal
  • Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Matteucci Medal
  • ForMemRS
  • Copley Medal
  • Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Max Planck Medal
  • Time Person of the Century
Scientific career

Fields

Physics, philosophy

Institutions

  • Swiss Patent Office
  • University of Bern
  • University of Zurich
  • Charles University in Prague
  • ETH Zurich
  • Prussian Academy of Sciences
  • Humboldt University of Berlin
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
  • German Physical Society
  • Leiden University
  • Institute for Advanced Study
  • Caltech
  • University of Oxford

Thesis

Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen 

Doctoral advisor

Alfred Kleiner

Other academic advisors

Heinrich Friedrich Weber

Influenced

  • Satyendra Nath Bose
  • Ernst G. Straus
  • Nathan Rosen
  • Leó Szilárd

Signature

Albert Einstein signature 1934.svg

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics . His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern , Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and he published a paper on general relativity in 1916 with his theory of gravitation. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.

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Discover Albert Einstein Quotes and Sayings

Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler. - Albert Einstein

Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.

Albert Einstein

simplicity minimalism physicist
In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. - Albert Einstein

In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.

Albert Einstein

opportunity physicist difficulty
People love chopping wood. In this activity one immediately sees results. - Albert Einstein

People love chopping wood. In this activity one immediately sees results.

Albert Einstein

productivity physicist
Curiosity is a delicate little plant which, aside from stimulation, is mainly in need of freedom. - Albert Einstein

Curiosity is a delicate little plant which, aside from stimulation, is mainly in need of freedom.

Albert Einstein

curiosity freedom physicist
I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice. - Albert Einstein

I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice.

Albert Einstein

physics god physicist
The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible. - Albert Einstein

The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible.

Albert Einstein

comprehension physicist understanding
The important thing is not to stop questioning; curiosity has its own reason for existing. - Albert Einstein

The important thing is not to stop questioning; curiosity has its own reason for existing.

Albert Einstein

imagination curiosity physicist
When I examine myself and my methods of thought I come to the conclusion that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing positive knowledge. - Albert Einstein

When I examine myself and my methods of thought I come to the conclusion that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing positive knowledge.

Albert Einstein

imagination knowledge physicist
One should not pursue goals that are easily achieved. One must develop an instinct for what one can just barely achieve through one's greatest efforts. - Albert Einstein

One should not pursue goals that are easily achieved. One must develop an instinct for what one can just barely achieve through one's greatest efforts.

Albert Einstein

challenges physicist effort
The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. - Albert Einstein

The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill.

Albert Einstein

imagination science physicist
Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to move in the opposite direction. - Albert Einstein

Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to move in the opposite direction.

Albert Einstein

simplicity physicist genius direction
I like to think that the moon is there even if I am not looking at it. - Albert Einstein

I like to think that the moon is there even if I am not looking at it.

Albert Einstein

physics quantum theory moon physicist
If a cluttered desk is a sign of a cluttered mind, of what, then, is an empty desk a sign? - Albert Einstein

If a cluttered desk is a sign of a cluttered mind, of what, then, is an empty desk a sign?

Albert Einstein

mind office
Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen. - Albert Einstein

Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen.

Albert Einstein

age
Reading, after a certain age, diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking. - Albert Einstein

Reading, after a certain age, diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking.

Albert Einstein

age
Confusion of goals and perfection of means seems, in my opinion, to characterize our age. - Albert Einstein

Confusion of goals and perfection of means seems, in my opinion, to characterize our age.

Albert Einstein

age