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José Rizal

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José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
June 19, 1861
Calamba, Laguna, Spanish Philippines


December 30, 1896
Bagumbayan, Manila, Spanish Philippines

Cause of death

Execution by firing squad


Luneta Park, Manila, Calamba, Laguna, Daet, Camarines Norte, Carson, California

Other names

Pepe, Jose

Alma mater

Ateneo Municipal de ManilaUniversity of Santo TomasUniversidad Central de Madrid


La Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina


Josephine Bracken


Francisco Mercado Rizal Teodora Alonso Realonda


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José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Realonda was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain.

He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence.

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