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Julius Caesar

Retrato de Julio César .jpg
The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy

Dictator of the Roman Republic

In officeOctober 49 BC – 15 March 44 BC

Lieutenant

  • Marcus Antonius
  • Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
  • Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus

Preceded by

Sulla

Succeeded by

Augustus

Consul of the Roman Republic

In office1 January 44 BC – 15 March 44 BC
Serving with Mark Antony  

Preceded by

  • C. Caninius Rebilus
  • Gaius Trebonius

Succeeded by

  • P. Cornelius Dolabella
  • Mark Antony
In office1 January 46 BC – September 45 BC
Serving with M. Aemilius Lepidus

Preceded by

  • Q. Fufius Calenus
  • Publius Vatinius

Succeeded by

  • Q. Fabius Maximus
  • Gaius Trebonius
In office1 January 48 BC – 1 January 47 BC
Serving with P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus

Preceded by

  • C. Claudius Marcellus Maior
  • L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus

Succeeded by

  • Q. Fufius Calenus
  • Publius Vatinius
In office1 January 59 BC – 1 January 58 BC
Serving with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus

Preceded by

  • Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer
  • Lucius Afranius

Succeeded by

  • L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
  • Aulus Gabinius

Personal details

Born

Gaius Julius Caesar
12 or 13 July 100 BC Rome, Italy

Died

15 March 44 BCRome

Cause of death

Assassination

Resting place

Temple of Caesar, Rome

Political party

Populares

Spouse

  • Cornelia
  • Pompeia
  • Calpurnia

Children

  • Juliac. 76–54 BC
  • Caesarion47–30 BC
  • Augustus 63 BC – 14 AD

Parents

Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta

Gaius Julius Caesar , known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He also wrote Latin prose.

In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to Britain and past Gaul. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars. As a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, and his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence.

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